The incident occurred in Namamugi village of Musashinokuni (current part of Tsurumi ward, Yokohama) in September of 1862. A procession with Hisamitsu, the father of the lord of the Satsuma clan, was heading for Kyoto after leaving Edo. Hisamitsu had entered the Edo castle to achieve his aim regarding feudal political reforms. The incident was accidental. When his procession approached Namamugi village, they encountered four Britons sightseeing on horseback. The Britons who were not well-informed about the manners and customs of Japanese did not get off from their horses, ending up unintentionally disturbing the procession in spite of the fact that they were instructed not to come any closer. They didn’t understand Japanese language and appeared to ignore the instruction of some of the Satsuma feudal retainers. They were regarded as disrespectful. As a result, some of the Satsuma feudal retainers slashed the four Britons with their swords following Japanese law. One was killed and two of them were seriously wounded. In the end it became an international problem. Neale, the Charge d'affaires of Great Britain in Japan, got so furious about the incident that he demanded the execution of the murderers and the payment of reparations (￡25,000) for the incident from the Satsuma clan in addition to an apology and the payment of reparations (￡100,000) from the Tokugawa shogunate. However the Satsuma clan continued to refuse their request. As a consequence, the Satsuma clan’s attitude forced the British government to dispatch the British fleet. They appeared in the Kagoshima Bay one year after the incident.
On August 11, 1863, seven Royal Navy warships appeared in the Kagoshima Bay. The objective of the British side was not to wage a war but to negotiate directly with the Satsuma clan over the reparations for the Namamugi Incident. The British side again demanded that the Satsuma clan should execute the murderers and pay reparations. However, the Satsuma clan used delaying tactics and did not reply. The British side got annoyed and took strong measures, seizing three steamships owned by the Satsuma clan on August 15 in order to make the negotiations more advantageous. (Koan Matsuki and Tomoatsu Godai, who were later selected as members of the Satsuma students, voluntarily surrendered to the British side at that time) Contrary to the British side’s intention, the Satsuma clan judged that the British side would go to war by seizing the Satsuma steamships. They opened fire on the British from the batteries fixed in Tenpozan and fought a fierce battle. The north part of the castle town of Satsuma domain was burnt to ashes, and some of the artillery units were destroyed. The number of British casualties reached more than sixty even though their military power was superior to the Satsuma’s power. The British fleet had an unexpected fierce fight, and left the Kagoshima Bay to return to Yokohama. Shortly afterward, both the British side and the Satsuma clan entered into negotiations with each other at the British legation in Yokohama, Japan. The third negotiation eventually brought about a reconciliation and the Satsuma clan agreed to pay reparations (￡25,000), which was borrowed from the Tokugawa shogunate, and paid to Great Britain. While both sides were in negotiations, the Satsuma clan requested the good offices of the British in order to purchase warships, which consequently enabled them to build a good and close relationship with each other.
【Tomoatsu Godai’s Written Report】
Because Godai and Koan Matsuki had voluntarily surrendered to the British side during the war, they had to hide themselves from shogunate officials and the Joi faction, a group of people who supported the exclusion of foreigners. The two fugitives had been suspected as traitors by both the Satsuma clan and the Tokugawa shogunate. While Godai was concealing himself in Nagasaki, he became acquainted with Thomas Blake Glover. Being on friendly terms with Thomas Glover made Godai understand world affairs profoundly. With a sense of urgency, Godai submitted a written report to the Satsuma clan regarding the reforms aimed at modernizing Japan, around June of 1864. He said that people should study abroad and learn Western technology so that they could help facilitate the modernization of Japan, otherwise Japan would be behind the times. The written report submitted by Godai included the following specific points: -to modernize the industry of the Satsuma clan by purchasing state-of-the-art machines -to dispatch students who would learn modern technology and acquire knowledge about Western civilization overseas -to employ foreign engineers -to make money necessary for these projects (including specific details, such as trading with Shanghai, for instance) The Satsuma clan that had been trying to strengthen military power was determined to send fifteen students with an inspection team, which consisted of four people, to Great Britain. Consequently, Godai’s written report triggered the dispatch of the Satsuma students.
【Selection of the Satsuma Students】
On February 13, 1865, four inspectors and fifteen students, most of whom had been studying at the Satsuma domain’s school called “Kaiseijo,” were selected and ordered to study abroad in Great Britain. However, the written appointment actually stated that they should embark to inspect Koshikishima and Oshima, both of which were islands governed by the Satsuma clan. Because it was the time of the national seclusion policy in Japan, the report never revealed that those students would actually be dispatched to Great Britain. In addition, they were given assumed names from the lord of the Satsuma clan. On the day before they set out from the castle town of Kagoshima, three people who had the spirit of Joi, the exclusion of foreign people, Jonosuke Hatakeyama, Shikinosuke Shimadzu and Kaname Takahashi, requested to remain with the Satsuma clan. Hisamitsu Shimadzu, who was the father of the lord of the Satsuma clan, tried to persuade the three to study abroad. Hatakeyama alone accepted the offer and the other two refused to be persuaded. Instead, Naoe Murahashi and Heima Nagoya, who were from similar good lineage and social standing to those of the two people who had declined the offer, were selected.
【The Stay in Hashima】
A group of sixteen members led by Niro, the leader of the delegation, set out from Kagoshima on February 15, 1865 and stayed in Naeshirogawa (now known as Miyama, Hioki City). The following day they left for Hashima from Ichikiminato aboard the ship. The group was scheduled to get on a steam sailing vessel which Thomas Glover had arranged for their voyage; the ship planned to take a detour from Nagasaki to the offing of Hashima. The students separately stayed with two families, the Fujisakis and the Kawaguchis by the seaside. They spent about two months studying hard in preparation for studying abroad. On April 14, 1865, Godai, Matsuki and Hori, who had been arranging their voyage to Great Britain in Nagasaki, arrived at Hashima and joined the sixteen members. The steam sailing vessel, the “Australian” on which they were scheduled to board appeared off Hashima on April 16, 1865. They stored their belongings on the ship and stayed one night on the ship anchored off shore.
A group of the Satsuma students embarked from Hashima before noon on April 17, 1865. They were not allowed to show their true feelings or ideas because their travel abroad violated the national seclusion policy. However, some students composed some waka (Japanese poems) and left them with their host families. These poems give us some idea of how they felt. The following waka were left by two members of the Satsuma students.
“How can I even bear Today’s last farewell? Only by knowing I must endure
This voyage for my lord.”
Composed by Sumitsune (Yoshinari Hatakeyama)
“How sweet this day seems The perfume of a flower Even in the shadows Along the coast of Hashima.”
Composed by Kazuhiko (Junzo Matsumura)
These translations can be found in Andrew Cobbing’s book, “The Satsuma Students in Britain: Japan’s Early Search for the Essence of the West” published by Routledge in 2000.
【The Trail to Great Britain (Hong Kong)】
Soon after the Satsuma students departed the shores of Hashima, their swords were taken away. They spent days being surrounded by British people or Chinese sailors who didn’t speak Japanese. In addition, it was difficult for them to get accustomed to having unfamiliar cuisine. It was like an unknown foreign country on the ship. Some of the students were prepared to fit in by having their topknots cut. They reached Hong Kong on the evening of April 21, 1865. They marveled at the beautiful night scene lit by gas light. They were also amazed to see a British warship, the “Euryalus,” which had been used to fight against the Satsuma clan during the Anglo Satsuma war, anchored in the port. The students wearing Western suits enjoyed drinking tea or shopping around downtown Hong Kong.
On April 29, 1865, they changed ships to a passenger ship, the “Madras” owned by P&O Company, and headed for the next port of call.
【The Trail to Great Britain (Singapore)】
The “Madras,” which accommodated 250 people, was a steam passenger ship with all the necessary facilities such as thirty guest rooms, dining rooms, bathrooms and so on. Saneyuki Takarabe told the following anecdote: “Tomoatsu Godai washed his face using water from the toilet bowl, mistaking a Western toilet made of pottery with water running for a washbasin because he had never seen such a beautiful toilet.” On the morning of May 5, 1865, they reached Singapore and tried pineapples for the first time in their lives. Junzo Matsumura recorded his experience as follows: “The taste of the fruit is like a Japanese peach and the shape of it is long-round. The peel looks like a pine cone in yellow but the inside it is white. We can write it like “松笠果物” in Chinese characters, which means pine cone fruit.” On leaving Singapore on the following day, approximately twenty Dutch people got on board. Junzo Matsumura was shocked to see a Dutch family kissing each other, being reluctant to part from their family members. Matsumura said; “The husband kissed his wife on her lips and left. I felt shame and embarraced watching them doing that in front of people. It seemed difficult for them to be separated from each other after one kiss, so they kissed again and again. They didn’t seem to mind other people being around them even though hundreds of people were there to see the ship off. The parents did the same to their children. I was so surprised because I had never seen such a scene. I hear it is the best manners to act like that to express their sad feelings when they part from their beloved ones.” They embarked for Penang, the next port of call, in the evening.
When he embarked for Great Britain, he was ometsuke (inspector general). He held the rank of isshomochi within the Satsuma clan (isshomochi were high ranking retainers who had large private estates). He was 32 years old and a feudal lord of Okuchi in Isa-gun, Satsuma. He was known as Chuzo Niro in later days of his life.
After reaching Great Britain, he traveled around Europe with Godai, Terashima and Hori with the purpose of inspecting the countries and of purchasing spinning machines or arms. Niro, who had realized the difference between Western education and Japanese education, made his eleven-year-old son study abroad in France just after returning home.
Although he became karo (chief retainer of the Satsuma clan) after returning to Japan, he stepped down in 1868. He subsequently served as a central government official for a period of time. After he returned to Kagoshima in his later years, he devoted himself to the Amami people as oshimatoshi (the governor) of Oshima.
He passed away at the age of 57 on December 10, 1889.
When he embarked for Great Britain, he was 32 years old.
He was adopted into his uncle’s family who was a doctor of the Satsuma clan, learning medical science and Dutch studies in Nagasaki and in Edo. He made experiments with a steam engine, a gaslight, a camera and a telegraph under the direction of Nariakira Shimadzu.
Terashima, who had returned to Edo after Nariakira’s death, was selected as a member of Bunkyu-kenoshisetsudan (First Japanese Embassy to Europe) in 1862, travelling around European countries with Yukichi Fukuzawa and other members. When he was serving as funa-bugyo (marshal of the ships) of the Satsuma clan, the Anglo-Satsuma War broke out. He voluntarily surrendered to Great Britain with Godai, when the ship which Terashima was on board was seized during the war. During his stay in Europe as one of the Satsuma students, he was mainly engaged in international negotiations with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Great Britain. He came back to Japan with Murahashi in 1866. He worked very hard to revise Japanese treaties with foreign countries as diplomat. He successively had many posts such as gaimukyo (chief of the Foreign Ministry), monbukyo (chief of the Ministry of Education), chairman of Genroin (the Chamber of Elders) and so on.
He passed away at the age of 60 on June 6, 1893.
He was 29 years old when he embarked for Great Britain.
In 1857, the lord of the Satsuma clan ordered him to learn about the art of navigation in Nagasaki. In April of 1862, he embarked for Shanghai on board the “Senzaimaru,” a trading ship owned by the Tokugawa shogunate, and purchased a steamship.
One of the three ships which were seized by the Royal Navy during the Anglo-Satsuma War was the “Seiyomaru,” which Godai had purchased. Godai and Terashima refused to get off the ship when it was captured by the Royal Navy, voluntarily surrendered to the British Navy and became prisoners. During his stay in Nagasaki as a fugitive, he planned to dispatch Satsuma feudal retainers to Great Britain and submitted a written report to the Satsuma clan. He made great efforts to accomplish his goal of dispatching students to Great Britain.
After reaching Great Britain, he traveled around Europe to inspect the countries and purchased spinning machines and arms. He returned to Japan with Niro and Hori in 1866.
He became sanyoshoku-gaikokujimukake (junior councilor of foreign affairs office under the new Meiji government) and worked in Osaka serving as gaikokukankenhanji (assistant judicial officer of foreign affairs office) and osakafukenhanji (Osaka prefectural judge). In addition, he contributed to the foundation of a mint in Osaka. He resigned from the government in 1869 and went into the business world in Osaka. He is occasionally called “a businessman with political connections” because he was concerned in the so-called “disposal of government-owned property by the Development Commission” (1881), which was one of the major bribery scandals in the Meiji Era. He made significant contributions to Osaka’s economy and he became the first president of the Osaka Chamber of Commercial Law (currently the Osaka Chamber of Commerce and Industry).
He passed away at the age of 49 on September 25, 1885.
When he embarked for Great Britain, he was 19 years old.
He was originally from Nagasaki, and was born as a family member of the Horis, who had been serving as Dutch interpreters in Nagasaki.
He joined the Satsuma students as an interpreter. He had been acquainted with Tomoatsu Godai since Godai was studying at Nagasaki-kaigun-denshujo (Nagasaki Naval Training Center).
After he reached Great Britain, he traveled to European countries with Niro, Godai and Terashima, and returned to Japan in March of 1866. He helped Godai with his business after Godai entered the business world. Furthermore, it is said that he continued to take care of Godai’s family members after Godai’s death. The Horis and the Satsuma clan had kept a steady relationship. Shigehide Shimadzu employed Takayuki’s great grandfather Monjuro Hori, the fifth head of the Horis. Monjyuro helped edit a series of books about agriculture and others. This series is called “Seikeizusetsu.”
He passed away at the age of 67 in 1911.
When he embarked for Great Britain, he was ometsuke (inspector general) and the Satsuma-han Kaiseijo-kake (director of Kaiseijo, Satsuma domain’s school). He held the rank of isshomochi within the Satsuma clan (isshomochi were high ranking retainers who had large private estates). He was 27 years old. He was a feudal lord of Ishidani in Hioki-gun, Satsuma.
He studied at Shoheizaka Gakumonjo (shogunate school) in Edo when he was 19 years old. He became ometsuke (inspector general) in 1863. At the same time, he engaged in leading students as head of the students at Kaiseijo after it opened. He returned to Japan at the end of June in 1867. During his stay in Europe, he visited famous facilities such as the British Museum and the South Kensington Museum (now known as the Victoria and Albert Museum), and was highly impressed with the development. Hisanari Machida felt so sorry for the extinction of cultural assets in Japan due to the anti-Buddhist movement in the early Meiji Era and the exodus of important cultural assets from the country. As a result, he submitted a proposal called “Daigakukengen,” in which the preservation, inspection or survey of cultural assets were proposed, to Dajokan (the Ground Council of State). He contributed to the construction of museums in Japan and became the first director of the Imperial Museum.
However, he suddenly resigned his post as a government official in 1885 and began a priest’s life. He worked as the chief priest of a Buddhist temple, Miidera-Kojoin in Shiga prefecture in his later years.
He passed away at the age of 59 on September 15, 1897 when he was under medical treatment at a temple, Kaneiji Myooin in Ueno, Tokyo.
When he embarked for Great Britain, he was tobangashira. He held the rank of isshomochikaku within the Satsuma clan (isshomochikaku were high ranking retainers who had large private estates). He was 22 years old.
He wrote “Hatakeyama Yoshinari Yoko Nikki,” a journal of travel to Western countries, which helped us understand how the Satsuma students spent their time after reaching London. In addition, in the summer of 1866, about one year after studying abroad in Great Britain, he made a trip to France, where Asakura and Nakamura were staying, and expanded his horizons.
In the summer of 1867, he fell into financial hardship. He went over to the United States with Arinori Mori, Naonobu Sameshima, Kiyonari Yoshida, Junzo Matsumura and Kanaye Nagasawa, who followed Thomas Lake Harris, a religious leader. The students hoped that Harris would help them continue to study abroad. However he couldn’t follow Harris’s ideas, and ended up leaving him in June of 1868. He moved to New Jersey to enter Rutgers College (known today as Rutgers University). Afterwards he accepted an invitation from the Iwakura Mission and returned to Japan with the members of the Iwakura Mission in September of 1873. After his return to Japan, he worked at the Ministry of Education and became president of Tokyo-kaisei-gakko (currently University of Tokyo) and served as director of Tokyo-shojakukan (currently the National Diet Library) and the Museum (currently the Tokyo National Museum).
He passed away on a ship at the age of 34 on October 20, 1876. He was on his way back to Japan from an inspection trip for an exposition held in Philadelphia.
When he embarked for Great Britain, he was tobangashira. He held the status of yoriaikaku within the Satsuma clan. He was 17 years old.
He returned to Japan, arriving in Nagasaki on July 11, 1866.
He served in the Boshin Civil War of 1868. However, nothing else is known about his life after he participated the war. He was the son of Sagenta Nagoya, who is famously known as the author of “Nantozatsuwa” and “Entonikki” in which the customs and the culture of Amami were recorded.
He was selected as a member of the Satsuma students in place of one of the two people who had declined to study abroad.
He passed away at the age of 65 on November 7, 1912.
When he embarked for Great Britain, he was okoshogumibangashira (head of page office). He held the status of yoriainami within the Satsuma clan. He was 22 years old.
He was another person who was selected as a member of the Satsuma students in place of the two people who declined to study abroad on the day before the group set out for Hashima. He returned to Japan, arriving in Akune on May 24, 1866. It is said that he came back to Japan earlier than other members because of mental fatigue.
After his return to Japan, he served in the Boshin War and also played a role in the peace talks to end the Hakodate War.
He worked for the Development Commission in Hokkaido in 1871. He engaged in the establishment of Nanae-kaikonjo in the suburbs of Hakodate and the construction of Tondenhei village in Kotoni of Sapporo. The aim was to make it a center for silk production. He wanted to fulfill the plan to cultivate the wasteland so that they could introduce modern civilization and modern agriculture, which Murahashi had observed during his studying abroad. He also hired a person named Seibei Nakagawa, who had learned about a brewing method in Germany. Murahashi led a project to construct a brewery. The brewery was first planned to be constructed in Tokyo and then to be moved to Hokkaido afterwards if it succeeded. However, Murahashi proposed that the brewery be constructed in Hokkaido first. His proposal was accepted and Japan’s first brewery was constructed in Sapporo, Hokkaido. This brewery was called “Kaitakushi Sapporo Bakushu Jozosho,” which is now “Sapporo Breweries Limited.” In addition to the brewery, Murahashi contributed to the establishment of a winery, a silk mill, a stock breeding farm, a salmon hatchery, a chicken egg hatchery and an agricultural examination station. However, in 1881, he suddenly resigned his post as the Development Commissioner just before the so-called “disposal of government-owned property by the Development Commission,” in which Tomoatsu Godai was concerned, and wandered around the country. His life afterwards is unknown.
Eleven years later, the Kobe Yushin Nippo (a daily newspaper) carried an obituary for Murahashi, which made his death known to the public and surprised people.
He passed away at the age of 49 on September 28, 1892.
When he embarked for Great Britain, he was a kutoshi (teacher) at Kaiseijo. He majored in Dutch studies. He was a medical doctor. He was 21 years old.
Asakura studied Dutch studies in Nagasaki and became a kutoshi of Satsuma-han Kaiseijo.
After studying in London, he moved to France in January of 1866 to study there. He returned to Japan in 1867.
He became a teacher of languages at Kaiseijo after his return to Japan and served as a Meiji government officer. He worked as an interpreter for Jean Francisque Coignet, a mining expert, and engaged in the development of Ikuno Silver Mine. He contributed to the modernization of the mines and the improvement of the roads such as “Ginnobashamichi” which connected Ikuno Silver Mine to Shikamadzu-ko (currently Himeji Port) in Himeji city with the purpose of carrying ore.
He led a secluded life in Kyoto in his later years and passed away at the age of 81 on January 24, 1925.
When he embarked for Great Britain, he was a kundoshi (teacher) at Kaiseijo. He majored in the study of English. He was 20 years old.
In the summer of 1866, he met Thomas Lake Harris, a religious leader, during his trip with Kiyonari Yoshida to the United States of America. In the summer of 1867, he fell into financial hardship and went back over to the United States with Arinori Mori, Kiyonari Yoshida, Yoshinari Hatakeyama, Junzo Matsumura and Kanaye Nagasawa, who followed Harris. The students hoped that Harris would help them continue to study abroad. He remained in the community of Harris with Mori and Nagasawa even after Hatakeyama, Yoshida and Matsumura had left. However, he returned to Japan with Mori in June of 1868 in accordance with Harris’s advice.
After returning to Japan, he served as a Meiji government officer and diplomat to Great Britain, France and Prussia. Five years later, he returned to Japan and became gaimutaifu (post in the Foreign Ministry) under Munenori Terashima, gaimukyo (chief of the Foreign Ministry). Three years later, in 1878, he went back to France as envoy. Two years later, he led an extremely busy life, working as Japanese Minister both to Portugal and to Spain in addition to envoy to France. He had a cerebral hemorrhage from extreme fatigue and he passed away at 35 while on duty in France on December 4, 1880. His funeral ceremony was grandly held in Montparnasse Cemetery on December 8, 1880. Arinori Mori, who had spent time with him as one of the members of the Satsuma students, expressed his condolences with his most sincere regard.
When he embarked for Great Britain, he was a daiitto-shosei (first-ranked student) at Kaisejo. He majored in the study of English. He was 23 years old.
In the summer of 1866, he traveled through Russia with Arinori Mori. In the summer of 1867, he fell into financial hardship and went over to the United States with Arinori Mori, Naonobu Sameshima, Kiyonari Yoshida, Yoshinari Hatakeyama and Kanaye Nagasawa, who followed Thomas Lake Harris, a religious leader. The students hoped that Harris would help them continue to study abroad. However he couldn’t follow Harris’s ideas, and ended up leaving him in June of 1868. He moved to New Jersey to enter Rutgers College (known today as Rutgers University).
Afterwards he entered United States Naval Academy in 1869 and accomplished his first goal of learning the art of the Navy.
He returned to Japan in November of 1873 and devoted himself to the Naval education in Japan as the president of the Japan’s Naval Academy.
He passed away at the age of 76 on January 7, 1919. Throughout his life he kept his assumed name, Junzo Matsumura, which he had been given before embarking for Great Britain.
When he embarked for Great Britain, he was a dainito-shosei (the second-ranked student) at Kaiseijo. He majored in the study of English. He was 17 years old. During his study abroad, he traveled through Russia with Junzo Matsumura and wrote a travel journal, “Korokiko.” In the summer of 1867, he fell into financial hardship and went over to the United States with Naonobu Sameshima, Kiyonari Yoshida, Yoshinari Hatakeyama, Junzo Matsumura and Kanaye Nagasawa, who followed Thomas Lake Harris, a religious leader. The students hoped that Harris would help them continue to study abroad. He remained in the community of Harris with Sameshima and Nagasawa even after Hatakeyama, Yoshida and Matsumura had left. However, he left for Japan with Sameshima in June of 1868 in accordance with Harris’s advice.
He served in the Meiji government and later became the first Minister of Education. He devoted himself to the improvement of the Japanese education system. However, many people were opposed to his innovative ideas such as the abolition of swords, the contract marriage, and the theory for teaching English.
He ended up being assassinated at the age of 41 by a nationalist on February 11, 1889, when the Constitution of the Empire of Japan was proclaimed.
When he embarked for Great Britain, he was a daisanto-shosei (the third-ranked student) at Kaiseijo. He majored in Dutch studies. He was 21 years old.
He was originally from Tosa domain (currently Kochi Prefecture) and was concerned in the assassination of Toyo Yoshida as a member of Tosakinnoto (loyalist clique of Tosa), a group with the spirit of Joi, the exclusion of foreign people. His previous name was Danzo Oishi when he was harbored in a residence of the Satsuma clan. He changed his name to Yaichi Takami after being employed by the Satsuma clan.
He served in the Meiji government after his return to Japan and was appointed to work at Osaka Unjo Office (Customs). However, he went back to Kagoshima in 1872 and spent the rest of his life there as a teacher of arithmetic.
He passed away at the age of 52 on February 28, 1896.
When he embarked for Great Britain, he was a daisanto-shosei (the third-ranked student) at Kaiseijo. He majored in Dutch studies. He was 23 years old.
He served in the Boshin Civil War and was killed at the age of 26 on July 8, 1868.
When he embarked for Great Britain, he was a daisanto-shosei (the third-ranked student ) at Kaiseijo. He majored in Dutch studies. He was 20 years old.
In the summer of 1866, he traveled to the United States of America with Naonobu Sameshima and was introduced to Thomas Lake Harris, a religious leader. In the summer of 1867, he fell into financial hardship and went back over to the United States with Arinori Mori, Naonobu Sameshima, Yoshinari Hatakeyama, Junzo Matsumura and Kanaye Nagasawa, who followed Harris. The students hoped that Harris would help them continue to study abroad. However he couldn’t follow Harris’s ideas, and ended up leaving him in June of 1868. He moved to New Jersey to enter Rutgers College (known today as Rutgers University). Afterwards he entered Wesleyan University to study politics and economics. He also mastered skills in banking and insurance.
He returned to Japan in the winter of 1870. In the following year, he served in the Ministry of Finance, accompanying the Iwakura Mission to raise a foreign loan. He devoted himself to the revision of the treaty as envoy to the United States of America.
He passed away at the age of 46 on August 3, 1891.
He received a Christian baptism when he was studying at Rutgers College. He seemed to be greatly affected by Christianity even though he didn’t remain in Harris’s community.
When he embarked for Great Britain, he was a daisanto-shosei (the third-ranked student) at Kaiseijo. He majored in the study of English. He was 13 years old. He was the fourth son of the Isonagas, a long line of scholars studying calendars, and he was the youngest member of the Satsuma students. Throughout his life he kept his assumed name, Kanaye Nagasawa, which he had been given before embarking for Great Britain.
He was too young to attend University College London, so he stayed with Thomas Glover’s family in Aberdeen, Scotland and entered a secondary school, the Gymnasium. He was such an excellent student that he attained first place with good grades in Latin, English and Geography. The local newspaper published an article about him. In the summer of 1867, he fell into financial hardship and went over to the United States with Arinori Mori, Naonobu Sameshima, Yoshinari Hatakeyama, Kiyonari Yoshida and Junzo Matsumura, who followed Thomas Lake Harris, a religious leader. The students hoped that Harris would help them continue to study abroad. Nagasawa was the only person who remained in the community of Harris even after all the other members had left. He was appointed as one of the successors to Harris. He not only carried on Harris’s business but also achieved great success in the winery business in the state of California. So he was called “the Grape King of California.” He settled permanently in the United States and passed away there at the age of 82 on March 1, 1934.
In 1983, when former U.S. President Ronald Reagan visited Japan, he talked about Kanaye Nagasawa, praising him in an address to the Japanese Diet. He said the achievements of one samurai who turned into a businessman was incredible and that Nagasawa helped make Americans lives fruitful, which was an event worthy of special mention. His address made the name Nagasawa widely known to the public.
When he embarked for Great Britain, he was a shosei (student) at Kaiseijo. He majored in Dutch studies. He was 17 years old. He was the younger brother of Hisanari Machida.
He returned to Japan in the summer of 1866.
He was recommended by Hisamitsu Shimadzu to be adopted into the family of Tatewaki Komatsu in October of 1870. However, on September 25, 1872, he handed over the leadership of the family to Tatewaki Komatsu’s eldest son and his life afterwards is unknown.
When he embarked for Great Britain, he was a shosei (student) at Kaiseijo. He majored in Dutch studies. He was 14 years old. He was the youngest brother of Hisanari Machida.
He went over to France from Great Britain in 1866 and stayed there during the Austro-Prussian War.
He returned to Japan in August of 1866. His personal history is unknown. However, he was adopted into the family of Takarabe. His memoirs, “Takarabe Saneyuki Kaikodan,” tell how things went during his study abroad. His memoir became a well-known historical document about the Satsuma students.
When he embarked for Great Britain, he had been studying in Nagasaki. He majored in the study of English. He was 22 years old. He was a follower of Dutch Physician, A.F. Bauduin.
After studying in Great Britain, he moved to France to study there in January 1866. He returned to Japan in 1868 and became a French teacher at Satuma-han Kaiseijo. Afterwards, he returned to France as an interpreter for Aritomo Yamagata and Tsugumichi Saigo. He served in the Meiji government and visited European countries such as Italy, Netherlands and Denmark as a diplomat. He also became a member of the House of Peers later in his life.
He passed away at the age of 58 on October 30, 1902.
Back Row, from the Left
Moriaki Asakura, Shinshiro Machida, Naonobu Sameshima,
Munenori Terashima, Kiyonari Yoshida
Front Row from the Left
Seizo Machida, Hisanari Machida, Kanaye Nagasawa